Social Neuroscience Definition
“Social neuroscience may be broadly defined as the exploration of the neurological underpinnings of the processes traditionally examined by, but not limited to, social psychology.” (Definiton of Social Neuroscience writen by Jean Decety and Julian Paul Keenan in the first issue of Social Neuroscience Journal.)
“Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding how biological systems implement social processes and behavior, and to using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behavior.” (Wikipedia)
Social Neuroscience Books
More neuroscience books.
Latest Social Neuroscience papers on Pubmed
Network analysis of schizotypal personality traits and their association with other subclinical psychiatric features.
Related Articles Network analysis of schizotypal personality traits and their association with other subclinical psychiatric features. Asian J Psychiatr. 2019 Aug 05;44:209-216 Authors: Zhang RT, Zhou HY, Wang YM, Yang ZY, Wang Y, So SH, Chiu CD, Leung PWL, Cheung EFC, Chan RCK Abstract Schizotypal personality (SP) traits have been found to be correlated with autistic traits, obsessive-compulsive traits, depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. However, the overall pattern of the relationship remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the network structure between SP traits and other subclinical features (symptoms or traits) and test the replicability of these relationships. A total of 2204 college students completed […]
Neurophysiological correlates of collective perceptual decision-making.
Related Articles Neurophysiological correlates of collective perceptual decision-making. Eur J Neurosci. 2019 Aug 16;: Authors: Baumgart KG, Byvshev P, Sliby AN, Strube A, König P, Wahn B Abstract Humans frequently perform tasks collaboratively in daily life. Collaborating with others may or may not result in higher task performance than if one were to complete the task alone (i.e., a collective benefit). A recent study on collective benefits in perceptual decision-making showed that dyad members with similar individual performances attain collective benefit. However, little is known about the physiological basis of these results. Here, we replicate this earlier work and also investigate the neurophysiological correlates of […]
Recognition and management of adults with Turner syndrome: From the transition of adolescence through the senior years.
Related Articles Recognition and management of adults with Turner syndrome: From the transition of adolescence through the senior years. Am J Med Genet A. 2019 Aug 16;: Authors: Lin AE, Prakash SK, Andersen NH, Viuff MH, Levitsky LL, Rivera-Davila M, Crenshaw ML, Hansen L, Colvin MK, Hayes FJ, Lilly E, Snyder EA, Nader-Eftekhari S, Aldrich MB, Bhatt AB, Prager LM, Arenivas A, Skakkebaek A, Steeves MA, Kreher JB, Gravholt CH Abstract Turner syndrome is recognized now as a syndrome familiar not only to pediatricians and pediatric specialists, medical geneticists, adult endocrinologists, and cardiologists, but also increasingly to primary care providers, internal medicine specialists, obstetricians, and reproductive medicine specialists. In […]
Cognitive resilience among APOE ε4 carriers in the oldest old.
Related Articles Cognitive resilience among APOE ε4 carriers in the oldest old. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 16;: Authors: Hayden KM, Gaussoin SA, Hunter JC, Manson JE, Sachs BC, Shadyab AH, Tindle HA, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Mozhui K, Snively BM, Rapp SR, Resnick SM Abstract OBJECTIVE: Relatively few APOE ε4+ carriers survive to old age (age 80+) without cognitive impairment (CI), thus little is known about distinguishing characteristics of resilient APOE ε4+ carriers. Herein we describe the sociodemographic characteristics of a large sample of resilient APOE ε4+ women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) and compare them to non-carriers and APOE ε4+ women who developed CI […]
Trustworthiness and Dominance Personality Traits' Judgments in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Related Articles Trustworthiness and Dominance Personality Traits' Judgments in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019 Aug 16;: Authors: Latimier A, Kovarski K, Peyre H, Fernandez LG, Gras D, Leboyer M, Zalla T Abstract Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social functioning, communication, and by the presence of repetitive behaviours and restricted interests. Abnormal processing of faces has also been described as a neuropsychological feature of ASD. We investigated the ability to judge two personality traits in adults with ASD in comparison to typically developed adults (TD). We used an eye tracking device to investigate the exploration of faces when participants judged the […]
Summary of Social Neuroscience
Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field that began in the early 1990s. Here, biological and social research approaches are regarded as complementary approaches to knowledge that examine socially grown structures beyond the individual. Research areas are the neuronal, humoral, cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying these structures. It is assumed that there is a reciprocal influence on different structural levels. A particular focus is on the functional examination of brain processes. The processes investigated are on the intraindividual level, such as social perception and social cognition, as well as on the interindividual level, such as social interaction and social influence. The integration of different research approaches requires interdisciplinary expertise and the integration of different data levels.
Due to the different parent disciplines, the interdisciplinary field makes use of a multitude of different methods (fMRI, TMS, EEG, ECG, EMG, endocrinology, SCR, lesion studies, animal models). The challenge lies in the integration of human data from social approaches with biological animal models. The basic idea of the research is to find explanations for previous conditions, to locate involved structures, to describe underlying processes and to predict their consequences. The multiple determinacy of human behavior makes it necessary to consider different levels of analysis already at the theoretical stage. Complex functional constructs (e.g. prejudice, attachment, empathy, trust) must be broken down into their subunits in order to represent meaningful analytical units.
Doctrine of Multilevel Analysis
The doctrine of multi-level analysis goes back to Cacioppo and Berntson (1992) and is to be regarded as a basic principle of the research field of social neuroscience. It takes into account the different data and levels of analysis and is based on three principles:
-Multiple antecedents: A target event at a structural level can have different triggers within that level or across different levels; if a trigger is hidden, this leads to an incomplete understanding.
-Nonadditive determinism: The properties of the whole cannot necessarily be predicted additively from the properties of the components.
-Reciprocal determinism: There is a reciprocal influence between biological and social factors with regard to the shaping of target behavior.
The Golden Triangle of Human Neuroscience
Since the different research approaches in the social neurosciences allow different conclusions to be drawn, Decety and Cacioppo (2010) propose to consider three interrelated approaches that can be regarded as equally important:
-Behavioural data (e.g. reaction time, choice, judgement)
-Physiological measurements (e.g. imaging techniques): the measurements provide correlative data of the human brain.
-Animal and human experiments (lesion studies, TMS, experimental pharmacology): the experimental data allow causal statements.
Only the combination of different approaches, e.g. in meta-analyses, enables deeper insights to be gained and a scientific consensus to be reached on a topic beyond tasks and situations.
The social brain
The adaptation of the brain to social processes explains the complexity of the human brain. The investigation of the neuronal structures underlying social cognition raises the question of whether there are specific social interaction modules or whether social cognition uses general cognitive mechanisms.
Field of research
There are many areas in which the findings from the social neurosciences can be incorporated. Classical studies exist, for example, on the recognition of emotional facial expression as well as on impairments in social behaviour with preserved intelligence after damage in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Damasio’s work clarifies the role of emotion in social decision-making, and current research areas include mental health, in the maintenance of which social relationships play a fundamental role. The psychopathology of the social brain and its plasticity are the focus of research. The understanding of mental disorders can be expanded to a holistic picture through the integration of social, psychological and neurological mechanisms. Another line of research is empathy research. Empathy expresses itself on the neuronal level, i.e. when looking at the emotions of a person, a similar pattern of activation is found as in one’s own experience of the same emotion. The diversity of the research areas illustrates the social potential of the social neurosciences.