Social Neuroscience Definition
“Social neuroscience may be broadly defined as the exploration of the neurological underpinnings of the processes traditionally examined by, but not limited to, social psychology.” (Definiton of Social Neuroscience writen by Jean Decety and Julian Paul Keenan in the first issue of Social Neuroscience Journal.)
“Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding how biological systems implement social processes and behavior, and to using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behavior.” (Wikipedia)
Social Neuroscience Books
More neuroscience books.
Latest Social Neuroscience papers on Pubmed
Long-Term Effectiveness of Cognitive Therapy for Refractory Social Anxiety Disorder: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Related Articles Long-Term Effectiveness of Cognitive Therapy for Refractory Social Anxiety Disorder: One-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Psychother Psychosom. 2019 May 23;:1-3 Authors: Yoshinaga N, Kubota K, Yoshimura K, Takanashi R, Ishida Y, Iyo M, Fukuda T, Shimizu E PMID: 31121592 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher […]
YaHaLOM training in the military: Assessing knowledge, confidence, and stigma.
Related Articles YaHaLOM training in the military: Assessing knowledge, confidence, and stigma. Psychol Serv. 2019 May 23;: Authors: Svetlitzky V, Farchi M, Ben Yehuda A, Start AR, Levi O, Adler AB Abstract Under conditions of profound stress, individuals in high-risk occupations may experience an acute stress reaction (ASR). Given that ASRs may interfere with functioning, placing the team in danger, the Israel Defense Forces developed YaHaLOM training to teach service members how to manage ASRs in team members. YaHaLOM is a novel, rapid, peer-based intervention specifically designed for use in the midst of a high-stress event. In all, 904 Israeli combat soldiers participated in the study; 76% reported having received YaHaLOM, and 24% […]
Cognitive Advantages in Adult Turkish Bilingual Immigrants - a Question of the Chicken or the Egg.
Related Articles Cognitive Advantages in Adult Turkish Bilingual Immigrants - a Question of the Chicken or the Egg. J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2019 May 22;: Authors: Nielsen TR, Antelius E, Waldemar G Abstract A number of studies suggest both cognitive disadvantages and advantages of bilingualism. In the current study, it is attempted to provide an account of the cognitive advantages associated with bilingualism in a Turkish immigrant population in Denmark.The total sample consisted of 71 middle-aged and older adults born and raised in Turkey who had migrated to Denmark in their teenage years or later. All participants were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery and degree of Turkish-Danish bilingualism was estimated via rater […]
Network analysis through the use of joint-distribution entropy on EEG recordings of MCI patients during a visual short-term memory binding task.
Related Articles Network analysis through the use of joint-distribution entropy on EEG recordings of MCI patients during a visual short-term memory binding task. Healthc Technol Lett. 2019 Apr;6(2):27-31 Authors: Josefsson A, Ibáñez A, Parra M, Escudero J Abstract The early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is particularly challenging. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been linked to AD and electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are able to measure brain activity directly with high temporal resolution. In this context, with appropriate processing, the EEG recordings can be used to construct a graph representative of brain functional connectivity. This work studies a functional network created from a non-linear measure […]
EEG Reactivity Predicts Individual Efficacy of Vagal Nerve Stimulation in Intractable Epileptics.
Related Articles EEG Reactivity Predicts Individual Efficacy of Vagal Nerve Stimulation in Intractable Epileptics. Front Neurol. 2019;10:392 Authors: Brázdil M, Doležalová I, Koritáková E, Chládek J, Roman R, Pail M, Jurák P, Shaw DJ, Chrastina J Abstract Background: Chronic vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is a well-established non-pharmacological treatment option for drug-resistant epilepsy. This study sought to develop a statistical model for prediction of VNS efficacy. We hypothesized that reactivity of the electroencephalogram (EEG) to external stimuli measured during routine preoperative evaluation differs between VNS responders and non-responders. Materials and Methods: Power spectral […]
Summary of Social Neuroscience
Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field that began in the early 1990s. Here, biological and social research approaches are regarded as complementary approaches to knowledge that examine socially grown structures beyond the individual. Research areas are the neuronal, humoral, cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying these structures. It is assumed that there is a reciprocal influence on different structural levels. A particular focus is on the functional examination of brain processes. The processes investigated are on the intraindividual level, such as social perception and social cognition, as well as on the interindividual level, such as social interaction and social influence. The integration of different research approaches requires interdisciplinary expertise and the integration of different data levels.
Due to the different parent disciplines, the interdisciplinary field makes use of a multitude of different methods (fMRI, TMS, EEG, ECG, EMG, endocrinology, SCR, lesion studies, animal models). The challenge lies in the integration of human data from social approaches with biological animal models. The basic idea of the research is to find explanations for previous conditions, to locate involved structures, to describe underlying processes and to predict their consequences. The multiple determinacy of human behavior makes it necessary to consider different levels of analysis already at the theoretical stage. Complex functional constructs (e.g. prejudice, attachment, empathy, trust) must be broken down into their subunits in order to represent meaningful analytical units.
Doctrine of Multilevel Analysis
The doctrine of multi-level analysis goes back to Cacioppo and Berntson (1992) and is to be regarded as a basic principle of the research field of social neuroscience. It takes into account the different data and levels of analysis and is based on three principles:
-Multiple antecedents: A target event at a structural level can have different triggers within that level or across different levels; if a trigger is hidden, this leads to an incomplete understanding.
-Nonadditive determinism: The properties of the whole cannot necessarily be predicted additively from the properties of the components.
-Reciprocal determinism: There is a reciprocal influence between biological and social factors with regard to the shaping of target behavior.
The Golden Triangle of Human Neuroscience
Since the different research approaches in the social neurosciences allow different conclusions to be drawn, Decety and Cacioppo (2010) propose to consider three interrelated approaches that can be regarded as equally important:
-Behavioural data (e.g. reaction time, choice, judgement)
-Physiological measurements (e.g. imaging techniques): the measurements provide correlative data of the human brain.
-Animal and human experiments (lesion studies, TMS, experimental pharmacology): the experimental data allow causal statements.
Only the combination of different approaches, e.g. in meta-analyses, enables deeper insights to be gained and a scientific consensus to be reached on a topic beyond tasks and situations.
The social brain
The adaptation of the brain to social processes explains the complexity of the human brain. The investigation of the neuronal structures underlying social cognition raises the question of whether there are specific social interaction modules or whether social cognition uses general cognitive mechanisms.
Field of research
There are many areas in which the findings from the social neurosciences can be incorporated. Classical studies exist, for example, on the recognition of emotional facial expression as well as on impairments in social behaviour with preserved intelligence after damage in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Damasio’s work clarifies the role of emotion in social decision-making, and current research areas include mental health, in the maintenance of which social relationships play a fundamental role. The psychopathology of the social brain and its plasticity are the focus of research. The understanding of mental disorders can be expanded to a holistic picture through the integration of social, psychological and neurological mechanisms. Another line of research is empathy research. Empathy expresses itself on the neuronal level, i.e. when looking at the emotions of a person, a similar pattern of activation is found as in one’s own experience of the same emotion. The diversity of the research areas illustrates the social potential of the social neurosciences.