Social Neuroscience Definition
“Social neuroscience may be broadly defined as the exploration of the neurological underpinnings of the processes traditionally examined by, but not limited to, social psychology.” (Definiton of Social Neuroscience writen by Jean Decety and Julian Paul Keenan in the first issue of Social Neuroscience Journal.)
“Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding how biological systems implement social processes and behavior, and to using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behavior.” (Wikipedia)
Social Neuroscience Books
More neuroscience books.
Latest Social Neuroscience papers on Pubmed
Detecting resting-state brain activity using OEF-weighted imaging.
Related Articles Detecting resting-state brain activity using OEF-weighted imaging. Neuroimage. 2019 Jun 19;: Authors: Yang Y, Yin Y, Lu J, Zou Q, Gao JH Abstract Traditional resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is mainly based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast. The oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) represents an important parameter of brain metabolism and is a key biomarker of tissue viability, detecting the ratio of oxygen utilization to oxygen delivery. Investigating spontaneous fluctuations in the OEF-weighted signal is crucial for understanding the underlying mechanism of brain activity because of the immense energy budget during the resting state. However, due to the poor temporal […]
Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on children with low-function autism.
Related Articles Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on children with low-function autism. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2019 Jun 22;: Authors: Kang JN, Song JJ, Casanova MF, Sokhadze EM, Li XL Abstract BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a very complex neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by social difficulties and stereotypical or repetitive behavior. Some previous studies using low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have proven of benefit in ASD children. METHODS: In this study, 32 children (26 males and six females) with low-function autism were enrolled, 16 children (three females and 13 males; mean ± SD age: 7.8 ± 2.1 years) received […]
Do ADHD-impulsivity and BMI have shared polygenic and neural correlates?
Related Articles Do ADHD-impulsivity and BMI have shared polygenic and neural correlates? Mol Psychiatry. 2019 Jun 21;: Authors: Barker ED, Ing A, Biondo F, Jia T, Pingault JB, Du Rietz E, Zhang Y, Ruggeri B, Banaschewski T, Hohmann S, Bokde ALW, Bromberg U, Büchel C, Quinlan EB, Sounga-Barke E, Bowling AB, Desrivières S, Flor H, Frouin V, Garavan H, Asherson P, Gowland P, Heinz A, Ittermann B, Martinot JL, Martinot MP, Nees F, Papadopoulos-Orfanos D, Poustka L, Smolka MN, Vetter NC, Walter H, Whelan R, Schumann G, IMAGEN Consortium Abstract There is an extensive body of literature linking ADHD to overweight and obesity. Research indicates that impulsivity features of ADHD account for a degree of this overlap. The neural and […]
Clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 has preventive effects on chronic social defeat stress-induced depressive-like behaviour and modulates microglial activation in mice.
Related Articles Clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 has preventive effects on chronic social defeat stress-induced depressive-like behaviour and modulates microglial activation in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019 Jun 18;: Authors: Tian T, Xu B, Qin Y, Fan L, Chen J, Zheng P, Gong X, Wang H, Bai M, Pu J, Lu J, Zhou W, Zhao L, Yang D, Xie P Abstract Recent studies have suggested the neuroprotective effects of Clostridium butyricum on mood disorders. However, the potential role of Clostridium butyricum in modulating the gut-brain-axis remains unknown. Here, we applied the commercial Clostridium butyricum Miyairi 588 (CBM588) strain to assess psychological behavioural alterations in mice exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). We […]
The Counteracting Effects of Exercise on High-Fat Diet-Induced Memory Impairment: A Systematic Review.
Related Articles The Counteracting Effects of Exercise on High-Fat Diet-Induced Memory Impairment: A Systematic Review. Brain Sci. 2019 Jun 20;9(6): Authors: Loprinzi PD, Ponce P, Zou L, Li H Abstract The objective of the present review was to evaluate whether exercise can counteract a potential high-fat diet-induced memory impairment effect. The evaluated databases included: Google Scholar, Sports Discus, Embase/PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychInfo. Studies were included if: (1) an experimental/intervention study was conducted, (2) the experiment/intervention included both a high-fat diet and exercise group, and evaluated whether exercise could counteract the negative effects of a high-fat diet on memory, and (3) evaluated memory […]
Summary of Social Neuroscience
Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field that began in the early 1990s. Here, biological and social research approaches are regarded as complementary approaches to knowledge that examine socially grown structures beyond the individual. Research areas are the neuronal, humoral, cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying these structures. It is assumed that there is a reciprocal influence on different structural levels. A particular focus is on the functional examination of brain processes. The processes investigated are on the intraindividual level, such as social perception and social cognition, as well as on the interindividual level, such as social interaction and social influence. The integration of different research approaches requires interdisciplinary expertise and the integration of different data levels.
Due to the different parent disciplines, the interdisciplinary field makes use of a multitude of different methods (fMRI, TMS, EEG, ECG, EMG, endocrinology, SCR, lesion studies, animal models). The challenge lies in the integration of human data from social approaches with biological animal models. The basic idea of the research is to find explanations for previous conditions, to locate involved structures, to describe underlying processes and to predict their consequences. The multiple determinacy of human behavior makes it necessary to consider different levels of analysis already at the theoretical stage. Complex functional constructs (e.g. prejudice, attachment, empathy, trust) must be broken down into their subunits in order to represent meaningful analytical units.
Doctrine of Multilevel Analysis
The doctrine of multi-level analysis goes back to Cacioppo and Berntson (1992) and is to be regarded as a basic principle of the research field of social neuroscience. It takes into account the different data and levels of analysis and is based on three principles:
-Multiple antecedents: A target event at a structural level can have different triggers within that level or across different levels; if a trigger is hidden, this leads to an incomplete understanding.
-Nonadditive determinism: The properties of the whole cannot necessarily be predicted additively from the properties of the components.
-Reciprocal determinism: There is a reciprocal influence between biological and social factors with regard to the shaping of target behavior.
The Golden Triangle of Human Neuroscience
Since the different research approaches in the social neurosciences allow different conclusions to be drawn, Decety and Cacioppo (2010) propose to consider three interrelated approaches that can be regarded as equally important:
-Behavioural data (e.g. reaction time, choice, judgement)
-Physiological measurements (e.g. imaging techniques): the measurements provide correlative data of the human brain.
-Animal and human experiments (lesion studies, TMS, experimental pharmacology): the experimental data allow causal statements.
Only the combination of different approaches, e.g. in meta-analyses, enables deeper insights to be gained and a scientific consensus to be reached on a topic beyond tasks and situations.
The social brain
The adaptation of the brain to social processes explains the complexity of the human brain. The investigation of the neuronal structures underlying social cognition raises the question of whether there are specific social interaction modules or whether social cognition uses general cognitive mechanisms.
Field of research
There are many areas in which the findings from the social neurosciences can be incorporated. Classical studies exist, for example, on the recognition of emotional facial expression as well as on impairments in social behaviour with preserved intelligence after damage in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Damasio’s work clarifies the role of emotion in social decision-making, and current research areas include mental health, in the maintenance of which social relationships play a fundamental role. The psychopathology of the social brain and its plasticity are the focus of research. The understanding of mental disorders can be expanded to a holistic picture through the integration of social, psychological and neurological mechanisms. Another line of research is empathy research. Empathy expresses itself on the neuronal level, i.e. when looking at the emotions of a person, a similar pattern of activation is found as in one’s own experience of the same emotion. The diversity of the research areas illustrates the social potential of the social neurosciences.